The Ahluwalia Decision: Shining Light on Family Violence as a Tort

Ahluwalia v. Ahluwalia, 2023 ONCA 476 shed light on the intricate intersection between family dynamics and tort law. This landmark ruling has set a precedent, recognizing family violence as a tort, thus providing victims with legal remedies and opening a path for justice.

Understanding Ahluwalia v. Ahluwalia, 2023 ONCA 476:

The case of Ahluwalia v. Ahluwalia, revolved around a married couple, where the husband subjected his wife to severe physical and emotional abuse throughout their marriage. The wife, filed a lawsuit against her husband, not only seeking divorce but also claiming significant compensation for the harm caused. This case brought the issue of family violence to the forefront and initiated extensive legal discussions surrounding its implications within the framework of tort law.

By recognizing family violence as a tort, the court acknowledged that the harm caused by familial relationships should not be exempted from the principles of civil liability applied to other forms of interpersonal violence.

Writing for a unanimous 3-member panel of the ONCA, Justice Mary Lou Benotto stated the following at paragraphs 125 and 126:

[125]   The trial judge assessed damages at $150,000: $50,000 for each of compensatory, aggravated, and punitive damages.

[126]   The compensatory damages were based on the fact that the respondent suffered from depression and anxiety because of the appellant’s abuse. The $50,000 in aggravated damages related to the “overall pattern of coercion and control and the clear breach of trust”. The appellant “preyed on the respondent’s vulnerability” as a new, racialized immigrant to Canada. Moreover, his post-separation conduct was egregious and left the respondent unable to meet the children’s daily needs, which itself affected the children’s long-term mental health.

The respondent sought $100,000 in total damages but the trial judge ordered $150,000. The rationale for the additional $50,000 for punitive damages in the trial judge’s words, were due to  the “strong condemnation” required.

The ONCA held that the trial judge did not error in the assessment for compensatory and aggravated damages, however the same was not concluded respecting the punitive damages that were awarded.

The ONCA found that the trial judge failed to take a required step in the analysis of whether an award of punitive damages was warranted. She did not address, and make findings that the award of general and aggravated damages was insufficient to achieve the goals of denunciation and deterrence. The court found that it was disproportionate for the trial judge to add punitive damages in the amount of $50,000.00. The court concluded that $100,000.00 in compensatory and aggravated damages was justified.


This case reminds us that punitive damages are usually the exception rather than the rule. At paragraph 133 the ONCA referred to the case of, Whiten v. Pilot Insurance2002 SCC 18, [2002] 1 S.C.R. 595

[133]   A proper consideration of the Whiten requirements in the context of this case does not justify an award of punitive damages because the compensatory and aggravated damages (in the amount sought by the respondent) are sufficient to accomplish the objectives of condemnation. It was unreasonable and disproportionate to add punitive damages in the amount of an additional 50% of the total claimed, without any explanation. I would allow the appeal with respect to the punitive damage award, thereby reducing the total damages to $100,000. This is not to say that where a tort is made out in circumstances such as these punitive damages are never justified. They may very well be, where the trial judge is satisfied that the deterrent and denunciatory effect of the other heads of damages is insufficient to accomplish the objective of condemnation. 

This case has redefined family violence in the context of tort law. Whilst there maybe those who are unhappy with the decision of the ONCA in reducing the final amount of damages awarded to the wife, this case has clearly recognized the harm caused to victims of family violence.  The ONCA may have rejected the creation of a new tort of family violence, but in essence this decision confirms that tort claims can be included in family law proceedings resulting in the award of significant damages.

Aisha 0029 crop Aisha Naveed

Aisha Naveed

Aisha primarily practices in the area of family law. She has successfully represented clients in both the Provincial and Supreme Courts of British Columbia.

View Author Bio